Friday, December 24, 2010

Portrait of the Artist as a Boy Smoking

            In both his painting and public persona, William Merritt Chase (1849-1916) represented the Gilded Age as a time of sophistication, beauty, and individuality.  Despite his notorious bohemian airs and the famous Tenth Street Studio in New York City, Chase was a Midwesterner by birth, and his financial standing was hardly secure during his rise as an American painter.  Throughout his life, he was dependent on the patronage of his portrait painting, and he taught to supplement his income at a number of well-known art schools before founding the Chase School of Art in 1896.  The anonymous portrait Boy Smoking (The Apprentice) (1875) was painted early in Chase’s career when he was studying in Munich.  The painting is a striking departure from his usual portraits and portrait painting in general, especially during the Gilded Age.  The analysis of any portrait usually begins with the purpose of the commission, but this initial methodology is impossible with the unnamed subject in Boy Smoking.(1)  The boy with a cigar is unlike the wealthy and glamorous subjects painted by Chase, and his character study needs further examination to understand how to place this painting within Chase’s life history and body of work as a whole.  The ironic nature of this portrait invites the viewer into a process of discovery, and the symbolic elements of the painting eventually yield the hidden identity of the anonymous portrait.
            Chase painted Boy Smoking (The Apprentice) at a time when the teacher-student relationship was very significant for him as an American studying in Europe.(2)  It was a formative period when his own humble roots as the son of a failed shoe store owner were recent memory, not the forgotten past of the sophisticated showman in his Manhattan studio.  There is an undeniable exit velocity in Chase’s desire to escape his Midwestern small town origins and to reinvent himself in New York City and abroad.  This was a young man who once declared, “My God, I’d rather go to Europe than go to heaven.”(3)  At the time of this painting’s composition, Chase had already failed twice in escaping his Indiana origins.  Chase first tried the escape hatch with the United States Navy, and his enlistment resulted in a short stint on the seas lasting only three months.  He was also unable to complete his initial artistic training in New York; Chase was forced to return to the Midwest when his father’s shoe business finally went out of business.(4)  At this point in his career and training, Chase is soaking up as much information--and as many different painting styles--as he possibly can during his time at Munich’s Royal Academy of Art because he doesn’t know how long the experience will last.   
While it is certainly accurate to classify Chase as an Impressionist, “Impressionism served as a resource, not a doctrine,” according to Chase biographer Keith Bryant.(5)  Chase’s training in Munich exposed him to German Realism, along with other significant influences in Gustave Courbet, Wilhelm Leibl, Frans Hals, and Edouard Manet.(6).  Throughout his life he had a special reverence for Diego Velazquez and his Spanish Baroque style.(7)  The bold brush work, dark atmosphere, and use of color in Boy Smoking reflected these important influences and his Munich training: “Its hallmark was the broad brushwork, heavily applied, designed to create an impression rather than depict literal reality.  The colors tended to richness, emphasizing reds and browns, with suitable highlights.”(8)  His closest relationship was with Karl von Piloty, an instructor and painter whom he greatly admired.(9)  Though the apprenticeship in Boy Smoking is in the medium of sculpture, the relationship of student and master was a lively one at this time in Chase’s life, and he was able to receive six years of European training before his funding ran out for the second time.  But he never went back to the Midwest.  Chase’s experience in Germany instilled in him a lifelong habit of borrowing from other styles when it suited his purposes.  Later he would encourage his own students: “Be like a sponge, ready to absorb all you can…I have been a thief; I have stolen my whole life…”(10) 
While borrowing and creating his pragmatic and unsentimental style of American Impressionism, Chase’s courtship of the upper class was ardent, calculated, and highly effective upon his second return to New York City.  The young shoe salesman called Merritt was very successful with the ladies at his father’s store, and he eventually reached the big time as a salesman in the big city.  Chase knew how to make a sale when he opened his Tenth Street Studio.  He raised up both private and public scenes of American life in paintings that invoked and rivaled the French Impressionists.  He was the first American painter to use city parks as landscape scenes, just as Whistler and Sargent had done in Europe.(11)  The hierarchical assumption that art was the domain of the upper class, both as subject and as consumer, was unquestioned during the Gilded Age.(12)  Chase would have been among the last of this period’s artists to question this assumption, and his portrait painting and landscapes presented new American scenes of refinement and beauty.(13)  Artists and art critics were working with the capitalist elites of the upper class to create a meaningful national identity.(14)  The ordinariness of Boy Smoking is thus in sharp contrast to the elegant American portraits and scenes that Chase painted throughout his life.  The humble portrait was also painted before the layers of Gilded Age showmanship had been applied to his own person, a transformation of identity that was perhaps his greatest masterpiece.  This painting has both an anonymous subject and an anonymous audience, and the absent parents of the boy in this portrait are far below Chase’s usual target audience among the elites.

The Invitation of Irony   
The painting Boy Smoking (The Apprentice) is a wry appreciation of character that references the formal language of portraiture.  The young apprentice is not placed in his familiar work environment, or near his master, and his ironic portrait includes the enjoyment of a cigar.  The boy has picked up more than just a craft from his master.  This is not his first cigar, and it is not his last.  The juxtaposition of light and darkness is the primary source of the painting’s irony.  The dramatic darkness surrounding the boy both enhances the subject’s personality and simultaneously references the formality of portrait painting that Chase and others have done.  The background is dark and finished, and the polished environment contrasts with the rough elements of the apprentice.  The boy is not a ruffian, but he is not a young gentleman either.  His status is somewhere in between, and his appearance is not without care and a sense of style.  This ambiguity of class was rare for Chase professionally, but he was all too familiar with it personally. 
The light source of the portrait is the viewpoint of the artist, or slightly to his left, and the light draws attention to the boy’s expressive face, the fine strength of his arms, and his habits of dress as an apprentice.  Chiaroscuro adds dimension on the vase, the strong arms, his hands, fingers, and the apron, which disappears completely in the darkness at the bottom of the painting.  The grey apron works with the surrounding darkness to give formality to the lower portion of the painting, and the apron has a smooth finish like the background.      
The vantage point of the painting is that of the painter himself.  The viewer, like the painter, is being watched closely by the unlikely subject.  Because he is smoking, the boy is not quite in the center of the composition.  The cigar is included intact, but the vase is not fully pictured in the lower left side of the painting.  If the cigar had been fresh, it would not have fit within the canvas of the painting, and there would have been a partial absence of both the vase and the cigar.  Fortunately, it is half-smoked.  The inclusion of the cigar is both prominent and whimsical, and it establishes a primacy in the painting to which the viewer returns in the process of deeper discovery. 
The boy’s upper body is distinct in the darkness, and the lines of the painting are most graceful around his visible skin area, especially his arms, which highlight the work that these arms and hands are capable of doing as an artist.  There is a fusion at both the top and the bottom of the portrait, and his hair and apron merge with the darkness.  There is a palpable roughness in the brushwork in some areas, especially on the shirt, suggesting physical activity, and that his best clothing is wearing thin.  But the rough texture is not universally applied throughout the painting.  There is the sense that the portrait was painted quickly, but that the background was prepared carefully, perhaps before the subject arrived.  An underlying possibility is that the background was intended for someone more important. 
The red hair gives the boy both vitality and personality, hinting of health and a barely restrained mischief that would be dangerous were he not so busy with his apprenticeship.  The greenish brown vest complements the three different and contrasting shades of red in the hair, his cheeks, and the fraying tie.  From the drab grey apron, the colors become more potent as the eye moves to the head of the subject.  The white shirt enhances the effect of the triple red, which is clearly the dominant statement of character despite its relative economy of usage.  The dominance of the color red combines with the primacy of the cigar to clarify a sense of artistic potency in the boy; that he is on fire, figuratively and literally.    
The boy’s face has a bemused expression of tolerance; or he is simply holding the smoke in his mouth, savoring the long-awaited smoke.  If the painter has sized up the boy, the boy is capable of keen and wry social judgments of his own.  Because Chase has not idealized childhood here, the boy is stronger, and more engaging, as an individual and not as the universal condition of lost innocence.  This boy hasn’t been innocent for a good while, and he’s not missing anything that he can remember.  The painting Boy Smoking is an ostensible portrait of youthful corruption.  Chase also painted Boy Eating an Apple at the same time as Boy Smoking, so lost innocence is presented in more than one painting during the Munich period.(15)  Street youths were used as models in both paintings, and it is the only time that Chase ever painted anyone who fell remotely into the category of the urban urchin.(16)  The true identity of the subject transcends the model used by Chase.  
The moral neutrality of this painting is in marked contrast to images of smoking youth in urban settings in pre Civil War genre paintings.  Urban scenes in painting were rare during the period that preceded the Gilded Age, and the general American assumption was that agrarian life was morally superior to the urban environment.(17)  Images of children smoking are symbolic of the moral danger of the city, such as in David Gilmour Blythe’s The Firecracker (1856).(18)  In this painting a boy lights a firecracker from his cigar.  The setting is urban, and the tone is menacing with the implication of racial inferiority and an immigrant class that was guilty of arson, theft, drunkenness, and labor riots.  Blythe projects the same sense of moral turpitude through smoking in an earlier painting titled News Boys.  The parents of the smoking children are nowhere in sight, and it is likely that Blythe intended these paintings to be an impetus for reform.(19)  In contrast to Blythe, Henry Inman occasionally painted far more positive images of urban urchins.  His painting News Boy (1841) presents a lower class boy with obvious ambitions to make something of himself, and some of his appealing echo can be found in Boy Smoking. 
            “Although his clothes and shoes are ragged and ill-fitting, he conveys a sense of style with a tie that matches his red collar of his overcoat and a threadbare hat set at a jaunty angle…Inman painted this image as the nation was barely emerging from a depression that had exacerbated urban poverty and unrest.  Yet in iconography and style the painting was reassuring, both as to the newsboy as a social character and as to the vitality of the city.”(20) 

            The reassuring image of urban children was the rarity--the exception not the rule-- and these morally uplifting youth are never in the act of smoking.  During the period from 1830-1860, New York City grew in population from 200,000 to 800,000 people. (21)  For Chase and others, New York City was always the place of opportunity, and the myths of moral superiority between industrial and agrarian America were exploded in the Civil War itself.(22)  Chase combines the Inman image of a boy on the rise with the smoking images of Blythe.  Yet the tone is morally neutral, and the vision of childhood is both affirmed and un-idealized.  There is no prodding urge towards urban reform in Boy Smoking.  There is no statement about Child Labor Laws, or absent parents, and the spiritual parent for the young apprentice is the master himself.  The absence of an actual parental figure here reflects economic opportunity not economic exploitation.  Like Chase upon his return to New York City, the boy is on the make and on the rise.      
Chase’s painting Boy Smoking subtly invokes two different genres of American painting, and it cannot be placed comfortably in either the traditions of Gilded Age portraiture or genre painting prior to the Civil War.  As mentioned before, Boy Smoking is a departure for Chase because of the boy’s class.  In contrast to Europe in the later 19th Century, American painters weren’t painting images of the urban poor, so this painting is as close as Chase comes to slumming with his subjects.  At a distance from his own Midwestern background, he may have been more comfortable studying the issue of class because he was in Germany.  This painting could have been an ode to a lost agrarian world where the boy might have worked side by side with his father on a farm, but any hint of nostalgia is surely missing.  The boy has escaped both the factory and the farm to learn a craft as an apprentice.  Chase has added the subtitle to make sure that we don’t mistake the boy for a mere factory worker to be exploited for his nimble fingers.  In the South, a large number of mill workers were women and children.(23)  The first protection for children was the Massachusetts Ten Hour Act of 1874, a year before Chase painted Boy Smoking.(24)  Chase’s painting is morally neutral, even as the smoking action of the painting is so prominently included.  The boy represents the rapid movement of American society into the future.  Ours was a nation that was changing so fast that any moral judgment would just have to wait.  The artist Chase was evolving, transforming, and learning at such a rapid rate in Munich that any moral judgment would indeed be pointless, and completely miss the mark of the artist he was becoming.  Rather than highlighting moral failure, the prominent cigar and formal background conversely suggest that the apprentice is an important personage.

Sexual Symbols and Artistic Identity: Freud and the Garden of Eden
            The symbolic composition of the portrait includes a cigar and a vase that is partly outside of view.  From the perspective of Freudian analysis, these two objects are highly charged symbols of male and female erotic desire and satisfaction.  Beyond the Judeo-Christian tradition, phallic and vaginal symbols are naked reflections of divine power and fertility.  Hinduism, Paganism, and the mystery religions have a reverence for these symbols as the divine tools of creation itself.(25)  The symbol of Hermes, the messenger of the gods, in 5th Century Athens was an erect phallus with testicles.  Because of the primacy of the cigar, both in the composition and in the title, the viewer is invited to return to this central symbol to access the deeper level of meaning in conjunction with the shadowy, mysterious vase.    
            The obvious potency of the cigar as phallic symbol is heightened by the post-coitus suggestion in the portrait.  The boy may be smoking after creating the vase, and the line between artistic and sexual activity is blurred.  Freud observed that the purpose of human tools is generally in relationship to one’s own body: “With every tool man is perfecting his own organs, whether motor or sensory, or is removing the limits to their functioning.”(26)  The boy is enjoying his male genital reality, while shaping with his own hands the vaginal opening and womb interior that he lacks.  The phallic power of a cigar becomes richer with the mythical associations of fire.  Though Prometheus gave fire to men, the Freudian association of fire is with the feminine.(27)  Because of a boy’s desire to urinate on the flames, women are the trusted guardians of the original Promethean gift.  Fire also symbolizes sexual desire, which can be both creative and destructive.  A coming of age is suggested in this portrait as the boy is clearly able to enjoy the feminine flame without peeing on it.  He can enjoy a good smoke, even without supervision.  The triple red on the boy’s person becomes even more potent with the added fiery symbolism of the flame itself. 
Freud’s psychoanalytical studies focused solely on the issue of penis envy in the experience of developing and even adult females.  Boy Smoking balances this infamous deficit in Freud’s theories with the mysterious vase.  A sense of womb envy is present in developing and adult males as well, and the obvious fullness of heterosexual desire is the yearning to have, hold, and fully enjoy the genitalia that one doesn’t have.  The boy’s thumb is entering the opening of his vase, yet the shadowy darkness suggests that the object is not fully understood, even though he made it himself.  The cigar is more familiar to the boy, and this knowledge is reflected by the full presence of the cigar.  Vases, urns, boxes, and even houses all symbolize vaginal flowering and the womb’s mysterious power, and the repression of these symbols reflects both desire and fear, such as in the story of Pandora’s Box.  Even in the Pandora myth, hope is also let loose from the urn when it is opened.  Without opening the urn of Pandora, there would be no hope in the universe.  It is unclear whether the apprentice has actually reached puberty, but his artistic identity reflects a knowledge and early mastery of the genital symbols of the painting.    
The loss of innocence by the boy is affirmed rather than condemned by Chase.  The companion painting of Boy Eating an Apple suggests that a deeper understanding of the Garden of Eden story may have been on Chase’s mind during this Munich period.(28)  The Garden of Eden includes a talking phallus and the feminine fruit of knowledge that God prohibits the man and woman from eating.  The serpent, the nude man and woman, and the mysterious fruit itself are all made by God, and the story combines knowledge of divinity with a sexual awakening that is powerful and transforming.  A close relationship between the nude female and the talking serpent is first established, and the character of the serpent is linked directly to the nudity of the woman.  The Hebrew words of Arum and Arumium are used to describe both the naked woman (and man) and the crafty (subtle) snake, which establishes a pun and virtual link in the original Hebrew.(29)  Both conditions of nudity and craftiness come from the divine Creator, and there is no devil in the story.  A close examination of the second Creation story also reveals that the serpent was guilty of no deceit, and God laments the situation of the Fall with other awakened divine beings: “Then the Lord God said, ‘Behold, the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil…” (30).  The first creation story in Genesis(1:1-2:3) presents God the Creator making the man and the woman simultaneously, and the naked woman and man are both in the image of God (Genesis 1:27).
This portrait Boy Smoking conflates the physical coming of age with an artistic and spiritual awakening in the studio.  Awareness of genitalia and sexual desire are simultaneous with the crafty awakening of the apprentice.  Chase’s obsession with the powerful moments of sexual awakening is also found in the unusual circumstances of his marriage.  His romantic interest in the woman who became his wife began when she was thirteen years old.  He was thirty.  Chase was enchanted by Alice Gerson upon their first meeting, and he began writing her encoded love letters in the event that her parents found his writing.  Alice began to pose for Chase, and the young model was impregnated by the thirty-seven year old artist when she was twenty.  Marriage went against the bohemian image that Chase had tried so hard to cultivate, but the scandal would completely destroy his career.(31)  Chase reluctantly married Alice Gerson, but he was a devoted father and husband despite the challenging circumstances that began their marriage.  The coming of age chapter of human sexuality was clearly significant for Chase in terms of his own early sense of vocation and his erotic interest in a girl who was seventeen years his junior.
In Boy Smoking, Chase has presented obvious masculine and feminine symbols, and their erotic antecedents are in the genitals.  The symbols appear on each side of the boy’s body which conveys a balance of the masculine and feminine.  This early portrait of artistic identity points to an androgyny in the boy’s awakening.  Rather than repressing sexual desire, the artist consciously embraces and redirects that energy into the creation of art, a kind of sacred foreplay.  The repression of sexual instinct is the price paid for living in a society.  Freud states that “it is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built up upon a renunciation of instinct, how much it presupposes the non-satisfaction (by suppression, repression or some other means) of powerful instincts.”(32)  The sublimation of sexual desire into work and other productive activity is a universal experience for both men and women, but the artist is presented here as being consciously aware of, and in touch with, masculine and feminine desire and fertility.  Hermes and Aphrodite are brought into a conscious balance in the act of creation.  The issue of whether the boy has sexually come of age is unclear in the Chase portrait, but the symbolism of the painting indicates that he has been brought into a special circle of those who practice a sacred craft.          

Chasing after Chase: A Hidden Self-Portrait Comes into View
            The ancient vision of masculine and feminine balance would be the exact opposite of what Chase has presented in Boy Smoking.  The yin of the feminine half of the body should be associated with the vase on the left side, while the masculine yang, symbolized by the smoking cigar, should be on the right side of the boy’s body.  By reversing the phallus and womb symbols, Chase is offering us the strongest clue about the true identity of this subject: that the painting is, in fact, a self-portrait.  Only in a mirror would the sexual symbols be properly aligned with the masculine and feminine sides of the body and brain.  Only in a mirror do we find the artist William Merritt Chase looking back at the viewer.  His bohemian pretension is stripped away, and a more naked persona is revealed here in the early development of his artistic craft.  The clues of the anonymous portrait finally unveil the true identity of the boy smoking.    
The symbols in this painting hide the apprentice Chase in the symbols of another medium of art.  Perhaps Chase was afraid of being found out among the class of people with whom he avidly sought for his entire adult life.  Despite the pose of sophistication and cultural refinement in his adult life, Chase was the son of a failed shoe store owner.  He was thrilled at his own success and reputation, and he possibly feared that the elites he had sought for his entire adult life would one day find him out.  “He came to New York as a young guy from the Midwest,’ says Barbara Dayer Galanti of the Brooklyn Museum of Art.  ‘I don’t think he ever got over it.  He may have said to himself, “How did I get here?  They are going to find me out!’”(33)  Those are the words of Barbara Galanti, not William Merritt Chase. Chase had too carefully created his own image to confess these worries aloud in sophisticated company, which was the only kind of company he sought.  Though we don’t have a smoking gun here, we do have a smoking cigar.  And where is smoke, there is fire.  The painting represents an unusual moment of candor for Chase, one where he lets the viewer see behind the polish and the glamour of his adult life to the crafty, ambitious boy he once was. 
The bronze relief of William Merritt Chase by Augustus St. Gaudens visually echoes the portrait of Boy Smoking.  The sculpture represents the adult fulfillment of the apprentice ideal; the boy from Indiana has become a sophisticated artist in New York City.  The cigar is transformed into the active brush of the painter, and the vase has become the palette.  Chase in Boy Smoking holds the vase as if its opening were the palette’s thumb hold.  Though a palette is a flat surface, it is the genesis of all color, a flat surface that functions as the literal womb of artistic possibility.  Chase and the boy are dressed almost exactly the same.  The painting Boy Smoking (The Apprentice), more than any other painted by the artist, most fully reflects his escape from small town Indiana.  It affirms both the perilous voyage and the beautiful discovery of vocation.  William Merritt Chase is brought full circle in this secret self-portrait.  Chase didn’t need to try so hard to escape his humble Midwestern past, and a gentle affirmation of the boy he was is present to the enlightened audience of this painting.  The formality of this portrait isn’t so ironic after all; the subject was a very important personage of his time.  The upper class patrons of the Gilded Age needed William Merritt Chase as much as he needed them.   
End Notes
  1. Peter Benes, ed., The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. Painting and Portrait Making in the American Northeast. (Boston: Boston University, 1995), p. 15.

  1. Keith L. Bryant, William Merritt Chase: A Genteel Bohemian (Columbia, London: University of Missouri Press, 1991), p. 29.

  1. Ibid., p. 21.

  1.  Stanley Meisler, “William Merritt Chase,” Smithsonian (February 2001), p. 2.

  1. Bryant, p.112.

  1. Ibid., pp. 24-29.

  1. Ibid., pp. 24,114.

  1. H. Wayne Morgan, New Muses: Art in American Culture 1865-1920 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978), p. 94.

  1. Ronald G. Pisano, Summer Afternoons: Landscape Painting of William Merritt Chase (Boston, Toronto, London: Little, Brown, and Company, 1993), p. 2.

  1. Meisler, Smithsonian, p. 6.

  1. Pisano, p. 9.

  1. Sarah Burns, Inventing the Modern Artist: Art & Culture in Gilded Age America  (New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1996), p. 9.

  1. Carter B. Horsely, “Modern American Landscapes, 1886-1890: The Brooklyn Museum of Art, The Art Institute of Chicago, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.” (, 2001), p. 6.

  1. Burns, p. 9.

  1. Bryant, p. 32.

  1. Ibid.

  1. Elizabeth Johns, American Genre Painting: The Politics of Everyday Life (New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1991), p. 176.

  1. Ibid., p.193

  1. Ibid., p.192-193.

  1. Ibid., p. 185.

  1. Ibid., p. 176.

  1. Paul Johnson, A History of the American People (New York: HarperCollins, Inc., 1998), p. 462.

  1.  Samuel Eliot Morison & Henry Steele Commager, The Growth of the American Republic, Volume II (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), p. 97.

  1. Ibid., p. 248.

  1. Denise L. Carmody and Richard Carmody, Ways to the Center: An Introduction to World Religions (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993), p. 3.

  1. Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents (New York, London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1961), p. 37.

  1. Ibid.

  1. Bryant, p. 31.

  1. Karen Armstrong, In the Beginning (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1996), p. 28.

  1. The New Oxford Annotated Bible, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1962), p. 5.

  1. Meisler, Smithsonian, p. 5.

  1. Freud, p. 44.

  1. Meisler, Smithsonian, p. 5.

Bibliography for Boy Smoking (The Apprentice)

  1. Armstrong, Karen.  In the Beginning.  New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1996.

  1. Bryant, Jr., Keith L.  William Merritt Chase: A Genteel Bohemian.  Columbia, London: University of Missouri Press, 1991.

  1. Burns, Sarah.  Inventing the Modern Artist: Art & Culture in Gilded Age America.  New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1996.

  1. Carmody, Denise L. and Carmody, Richard.  Ways to the Center: An Introduction to World Religions.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993.

5.   Freud, Sigmund.  Civilization and Its Discontents.  New York, London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1961.

  1. Freud, Sigmund.  The Future of an Illusion.  New York, London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1961.

  1. Horsley, Carter B.  “Modern American Landscapes, 1886-1890: The Brooklyn Museum of Art, The Art Institute of Chicago, The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.”

  1. Johns, Elizabeth.  American Genre Painting: The Politics of Everyday Life.  New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1991.

  1. Johnson, Paul.  A History of the American People.  New York: HarperCollins, Inc., 1998.

  1. Meisler, Stanley.  “William Merritt Chase.”  Smithsonian, February 2001.

  1. Morgan, H. Wayne.  New Muses: Art in American Culture 1865-1920.  Norman:      University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.

  1. Morison, Samuel Eliot & Commager, Henry Steele.  The Growth of the American Republic, Volume II.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.

  1. The New Oxford Annotated Bible.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1962.

  1. Painting and Portrait Making in the American Northeast.  The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife.  Boston: Boston University, 1995.

  1. Pisano, Ronald G.  Summer Afternoons: Landscape Paintings of William Merritt Chase.  Boston, Toronto, London: Little, Brown and Company, 1993.


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